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Czestochowa - tourism in Czestochowa, map, photos, description, tourist attractions and hotels

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Czestochowa

city

Location

50o49' N   19o07' E

Silesian voivodeship

Częstochowa poviat

Częstochowa commune

Częstochowa region


General information

Elevation AMSL 257m

Area 160 km2

Population 246800

Area code 0-34

Car plates SC

Postal codes:
42-200, 42-202, 42-203, 42-205, 42-207, 42-208, 42-209, 42-210, 42-211, 42-213, 42-214, 42-215, 42-216, 42-217, 42-218


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Czestochowa

 
  • Chęstochowa is located in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland. With the population of 255 000, the city covers the area of 160 sq km. Historically the city belongs to the Małopolska Region. The Jasna Góra Church and the Monastery with the miraculous painting of Our Lady are the main Marian cult centre in Poland. For this reason, Częstochowa is recognised as the spiritual capital of Poland.

    Częstochowa was founded in the 11th century. The first reference to the city dates back to 1220. The name originates from the Slavic name Częstochow. In the years 1370-1393, Częstochowa was given as a fief to Ladislaus, the Duke of Opole, who in 1382 founded Pauline Monastery. Częstochowa received city rights between 1370 and 1377; in 1502 the city received the charter under the Magdeburg Law.

    In the 17th century, the Monastery was changed into a stronghold, which successfully resisted the Swedish attack in 1655. After the Second Partition of Poland, Częstochowa became a part of Prussia. After 1807, the city was incorporated to the Duchy of Warsaw, later known as the Congress Kingdom. Initially, there were Old Częstochowa and Częstochówka (the latter received city rights in 1717 and was known as New Częstochowa), which were merged on August 19, 1826. In 1819, Jan Bernhard, a renowned military architect, planned and started the construction of the Holy Virgin Mary Avenue, the main axis of the city.

    The Warsaw-Vienna Railway line, which was opened in 1846, and the exploitation of iron ores (not exploited today) gave a boost to the textiles, paper and metal industries; one of the most notable investments of the time was "Huta Częstochowa" (steelworks) the building of which was initiated by Bernard Hantke.

    During World War II, Częstochowa was renaimed Tschenstochau and was incorporated into the General Government. The Germans marched into the city on September 3, 1939; the next day, which became known as Bloody Monday, the Nazis killed approximately 150 Jews. In 1940, due to the so called "AB Action", the city's leaders and intelligentsia (professors, teachers and priests) were exterminated.

    In the People's Republic of Poland (the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989), the steelworks was significantly expanded and named after Bolesław Bierut (after 1989 it was renamed back to "Huta Częstochowa); this, in turn, fostered the development of the city.

    For many years, Częstochowa has been an important industrial centre; it specializes in metallurgic, textile, chemical industries and plastic processing. Today, over 30 thousand business entities comprising single business firms and corporate business operate in the city. The craft, with its age-old tradition in producing souvenires and devotional atricles, also plays an important role in Częstochowa economy.

    For its active engagement in promoting European integration, international cooperation, and the concept of a united Europe and mutual friendship among nations at the local government level, in 1993 Częstochowa received an Honorary Flag of Europe and two years later, in 1995, the Council of Europe Honorary Plaque. In 1998, as the first city in Central-Eastern Europe, Częstochowa was awarded the Europe Prize - Prix de l'Europe, which is the highest distinction granted to European local governments by the Council of Europe.

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